Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Epidemic Of Smallpox Vaccine - 943 Words

In the 21th century we live our lives day to day seeing the next medicine breakthrough. It is easy for us to assume that’s how the history of medicine has always been. On the contrary, medicine became positively modern in the 19th century, new inventions were introduced, new discoveries were brought to their attention, remedies was in the spotlight, and the start of women’s professions generated. Vaccines are the most successful strategies in medicine to prevent and even eliminate the most gruesome and contagious diseases. For centuries, smallpox traumatized the human race. Today, smallpox is not something we automatically think of when somebody gets a rash or have the chills, thanks to Edward Jenner. The first successful smallpox vaccine was introduced by Jenner in 1796. Although, Jenner’s portrayed the first scientific attempt to control this deadly disease, later in the 19th century it was perceived that the vaccination did not grant immunity for the rest a vi ctim s life. As the 19th century came to an end, the smallpox vaccine became more advanced and more depended on. Scientist Louis Pasteur amazed the French Academy of Medicine when he prevented two boys from contracting rabies. Once a person was to get rabies, the symptom was death. A 15-year-old, Jean-Baptiste, was bitten several times while conflicting with a rabid dog. Three days following to the dog attack, Pasteur and his colleagues injected Jean 13 times over 10 days with rabid rabbits’ nerve tissue that hadShow MoreRelatedThe Epidemic Of Smallpox And Vaccines1327 Words   |  6 PagesWhen a vaccine is given, the human body produces antibodies against the foreign substance, thus creating a defense mechanism for immunity to occur. A vaccine is defined as â€Å"any preparation used as a preventive inoculation to confer immunity against a specific disease, usually employing an innocuous form of the disease agent, as killed or weakened bacteria or viruses, to stimulate ant ibody production† ( The epidemic of smallpox is one of the most groundbreaking moments in medical historyRead MoreThe Epidemic Of Smallpox And Vaccines1327 Words   |  6 PagesWhen a vaccine is given, the human body produces antibodies against the foreign substance, thus creating a defense mechanism for immunity to occur. A vaccine is defined as â€Å"any preparation used as a preventive inoculation to confer immunity against a specific disease, usually employing an innocuous form of the disease agent, as killed or weakened bacteria or viruses, to stimulate antibody production† ( The epidemic of smallpox is one of the most groundbreaking moments in medical historyRead MoreThe Epidemic Of The Smallpox Vaccine1085 Words   |  5 Pageseliminated in a region. (Carter n.d.) Only one infectious disease to date, smallpox, has been categorized as eradicated worldwide (CDC 2010). How did this eradication occur? From 1958 to 1965 all fifty stat es enacted legislation mandating school age children receive the smallpox vaccine (College of Philadelphia). Consequently, by 1971, no smallpox cases had been reported in the United States for 20 years. The last known smallpox case in the world was in Somalia in 1977 (CDC 2010). Even though smallRead MoreThe Wonders of Smallpox1437 Words   |  6 PagesThe Wonders of Smallpox There are several epidemics in the world, but the one that stands out the most and has a large affect on people is smallpox. An epidemic is a widespread occurrence of and infectious disease in a community at a particular time. There are several epidemics and lots of them are very dangerous and can lead to very severe sickness or even death. For example there are more diseases that land in the epidemic â€Å"family† such as HIV, AIDS, Herpes, and Gonorrhea just to give you an ideaRead More Vaccination: A Necessary Precaution Essay1100 Words   |  5 Pagesimmunization is one of the most significant advances in scientific history that has led to the prevention of countless diseases and epidemics throughout the world. Still, despite the overall improvement of public health, the usage of vaccinations remains a controversial concern that is constantly challenged. Vaccination critics argue that the serious side effects associated with vaccines have been underreported, underfunde d, and rarely researched. This, however, is false. Vaccinations are a necessary partRead MoreThe Importance Of Compulsory Vaccination836 Words   |  4 Pages11 (1905)). This case was Jacobson v. Massachusetts. During this time period, there was a recurring threat of a smallpox epidemic (Mariner, Annas, Glantz 2005). In order to prevent the spread of the disease, the state of Massachusetts enacted a statute that granted city boards of health the power to require vaccinations to be administered to all adults and children due to the smallpox surge in Cambridge (Mariner et al. 2005). However, Henning Jacobson refused the vaccination for himself and hisRead MoreDuring the twentieth century, more than 300 million deaths worldwide were due to smallpox, however,1300 Words   |  6 Pages During the twentieth century, more than 300 million deaths worldwide were due to smallpox, however, in 1980 after a global collaboration led by the World Health Organization, the first infectious disease to be eradicated was smallpox. On the other hand, during the 20th century tuberculosis which was once thought to have been declining in developed countries, is now according to WHO (2013) second only to HIV/AIDS as the greatest killer worldwide. This disease has been estimated by The World HealthRead More Vaccination: A Necessary Precaution Essay1525 Words   |  7 Pagesimmunization is one of the most significant advances in scientific history that has led to the prevention of countless diseases and epidemics throughout the world. Still, despite the overall improvement of public health, the usage of vaccinations remains a controversial concern that is constantly challenged. Vaccination critics argue that the serious side effects associated with vaccines have been underreported, u nderfunded, and rarely researched. This, however, is false. Vaccinations are a necessary partRead MoreVaccination : Is It Worth A Shot? Essay1395 Words   |  6 Pagesillnesses to spread from one person to another. Vaccines are inactivated or attenuated viruses that helps the body develop a strong immunity against detrimental diseases. It helps strengthens the population’s health and prevent them from having illnesses. Despite these advantageous benefits of vaccination, there is still an immense and great ongoing debate as to whether vaccinations should be optional or mandatory. Although others believe that vaccines should not be non-obligatory, it is safer andRead MoreThe History of Smallpox and How It Became Eradicated Essay1543 Words   |  7 PagesSmallpox is an ancient and very deadly disease. Scientists think that smallpox first started around 10,000 B.C. in Africa. They also think that it spread from Africa to India by Egyptian merchants. Scientists have studied th e mummy of the Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses V., who died in 1156 B.C., and they think that he had smallpox. Smallpox was also known to be in China in 1122 B.C. There are also writings from India around that same time that mention smallpox. Smallpox is the only disease to ever be eradicated

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

History of Ecuadors San Francisco De Quito

The city of San Francisco de Quito (generally simply called Quito) is the capital of Ecuador and the second-largest city in the nation after Guayaquil. It is centrally located on a plateau high in the Andes Mountains. The city has a long and interesting history dating from pre-Colombian times to the present. Pre-Colombian Quito Quito occupies a temperate, fertile plateau high (9,300 feet/2,800 meters above sea level) in the Andes Mountains. It has a good climate and has been occupied by people for a long time. The first settlers were the Quitu people: they were eventually subjugated by the Caras culture. Sometime in the fifteenth century, the city and region were conquered by the mighty Inca Empire, based out of Cuzco to the south. Quito prospered under the Inca and soon became the second most important city in the Empire. The Inca Civil War Quito was plunged into civil war sometime around 1526. Inca ruler Huayna Capac died (possibly of smallpox) and two of his many sons, Atahualpa and Huà ¡scar, began to fight over his empire. Atahualpa had the support of Quito, whereas Huà ¡scars power base was in Cuzco. More importantly for Atahualpa, he had the support of three powerful Inca generals: Quisquis, Chalcuchima, and Rumià ±ahui. Atahualpa prevailed in 1532 after his forces routed Huà ¡scars at the gates of Cuzco. Huà ¡scar was captured and would later be executed on Atahualpas orders. The Conquest of Quito In 1532 Spanish conquistadors under Francisco Pizarro arrived and took Atahualpa captive. Atahualpa was executed in 1533, which turned as-yet unconquered Quito against the Spanish invaders, as Atahualpa was still much beloved there. Two different expeditions of conquest converged on Quito in 1534, led by Pedro de Alvarado and Sebastià ¡n de Benalcà ¡zar respectively. The people of Quito were tough warriors and fought the Spanish every step of the way, most notably at the Battle of Teocajas. Benalcà ¡zar arrived first only to find that Quito had been razed by general Rumià ±ahui to spite the Spanish. Benalcà ¡zar was one of 204 Spaniards to formally establish Quito as a Spanish city on December 6, 1534, a date which is still celebrated in Quito. Quito During the Colonial Era Quito prospered during the colonial era. Several religious orders including the Franciscans, Jesuits, and Augustinians arrived and built elaborate churches and convents. The city became a center for Spanish colonial administration. In 1563 it became a Real Audiencia under the supervision of the Spanish Viceroy in Lima: this meant that there were judges in Quito who could rule on legal proceedings. Later, administration of Quito would pass to the Viceroyalty of New Granada in present-day Colombia. The Quito School of Art During the Colonial era, Quito became know for the high-quality religious art produced by the artists who lived there. Under the tutelage of Franciscan Jodoco Ricke, the Quitan students began producing high-quality works of art and sculpture in the 1550’s: the â€Å"Quito School of Art† would eventually acquire very specific and unique characteristics. Quito art is characterized by syncretism: that is, a mixture of Christian and native themes. Some paintings feature Christian figures in Andean scenery or following local traditions: a famous painting in Quito’s cathedral features Jesus and his disciples eating guinea pig (a traditional Andean food) at the last supper. The August 10 Movement In 1808, Napoleon invaded Spain, captured the King and put his own brother on the throne. Spain was thrown into turmoil: a competing Spanish government was set up and the country was at war with itself. Upon hearing the news, a group of concerned citizens in Quito staged a rebellion on August 10, 1809: they took control of the city and informed the Spanish colonial officials that they would rule Quito independently until such a time as the King of Spain were restored. The Viceroy in Peru responded by sending an army to quash the rebellion: the August 10 conspirators were thrown in a dungeon. On August 2, 1810, the people of Quito tried to break them out: the Spanish repelled the attack and massacred the conspirators in custody. This gruesome episode would help keep Quito mostly on the sidelines of the struggle for independence in northern South America. Quito was finally liberated from the Spanish on May 24, 1822, at the Battle of Pichincha: among the heroes of the battle were Field Marshal Antonio Josà © de Sucre and local heroine Manuela Sà ¡enz. The Republican Era After independence, Ecuador was at first part of the Republic of Gran Colombia: the republic fell apart in 1830 and Ecuador became an independent nation under first President Juan Josà © Flores. Quito continued to flourish, although it remained a relatively small, sleepy provincial town. The greatest conflicts of the time were between liberals and conservatives. In a nutshell, conservatives preferred a strong central government, limited voting rights (only wealthy men of European descent) and a strong connection between church and state. Liberals were just the opposite: they preferred stronger regional governments, universal (or at least expanded) suffrage and no connection whatsoever between church and state. This conflict often turned bloody: conservative president Gabriel Garcà ­a Moreno (1875) and liberal ex-president Eloy Alfaro (1912) were both assassinated in Quito. The Modern Era of Quito Quito has continued to slowly grow and has evolved from a tranquil provincial capital to a modern metropolis. It has experienced occasional unrest, such as during the turbulent presidencies of Josà © Marà ­a Velasco Ibarra (five administrations between 1934 and 1972). In recent years, the people of Quito have occasionally taken to the streets to successfully oust unpopular presidents such as Abdalà ¡ Bucaram (1997) Jamil Mahuad (2000) and Là ºcio Gutià ©rrez (2005). These protests were peaceful for the most part and Quito, unlike many other Latin American cities, has not seen violent civil unrest in some time. Quito’s Historic Center Perhaps because it spent so many centuries as a quiet provincial town, Quitos old colonial center is particularly well-preserved. It was one of UNESCOS first World Heritage sites in 1978. Colonial churches stand side-by-side with elegant Republican homes on airy squares. Quito has invested a great deal recently in restoring what locals call el centro historico and the results are impressive. Elegant theatres such as the Teatro Sucre and Teatro Mà ©xico are open and show concerts, plays and even the occasional opera. A special squad of tourism police is detailed to the old town and tours of old Quito are becoming very popular. Restaurants and hotels are flourishing in the historic city center. Sources: Hemming, John. The Conquest of the Inca London: Pan Books, 2004 (original 1970). Various Authors. Historia del Ecuador. Barcelona: Lexus Editores, S.A. 2010

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Maids Taking over the Role of Parents Free Essays

Maids are taking over the role of parents? AS a parent, I read with interest how many busy parents â€Å"outsource† their work in raising their kids to their maids at home. (â€Å"Maids are taking over parenting role† – NST, May 10). In many homes these days, both parents work to pay the bills. We will write a custom essay sample on Maids Taking over the Role of Parents or any similar topic only for you Order Now But a better income does not mean a better quality of life for the family at home. Children would rather spend more time with their parents than be given money or presents as substitutes for parental attention. I believe children’s behavior is the product of their environment. If children live with criticism, they learn to condemn. If they live with tolerance, they learn to be patient. If children learn about sharing, they learn to be generous. If children live with praise, they learn to appreciate. Child minders are not good role models for our young kids to follow as their norms and values may not be suited to local conditions. I may not be a very good person, I have fights with my maid like, every single day, every single time. she’s so annoying sometimes. And when she screams, we couldn’t compare the difference between a pontianak and my maid. I mean, aren’t you afraid of indonesian maids? To me, they’re scary. Like, literally scary. So, never tie a string with a maid, tie a rope with your parents. Wow, that might be the best idiom ever. Or is it? Score gila siallll. Stay-in Maids have taken the role of parents (Government Team’s points. ) – Maids are always at home. – Maids know the children better (personality, behavior) – Maids are always available when the children need help. – Maids care for the children. – Parents are too dependent on maids. *For example: A parent sends his/her child to school, and the parent wants to know how his/her child behaves in school. So the parent asks the teacher about his/her child’s behavior. Just because the teacher spends more time with the child in school doesn’t mean the teacher is the parent of the child who knows the child more. Tell me, worthy opponents. Why is this so? High-achievers: -Some parents want their child to be high-achievers when they grow up. Therefore, they send their child to piano classes, tae kwon do classes, tuition, art classes and much, much more. The maid does not have time for the child because the child is very busy with the daily classes. Tell me, worthy opponents. How to cite Maids Taking over the Role of Parents, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Financial Accounting Assessment Of Sunshine LTD †Free Samples

Question: Discuss About The Financial Accounting Of Sunshine Assessment? Answer: Introduction The issue that would be discussed in the report deals with a large departmental store situated in Australia. In the report, there would be an assessment of financial accounting of an Australian company. The company has a properly defined ethics for its business and practices a definite and individualized strategy for running the business smoothly. As regards the accounting responsibilities of the company, it adopted the straight-line method for calculation of depreciation of its assets. As a result of using this depreciation method, the company witnessed a commendable increase in the profits, as recorded in the year 2015. But, for the next financial year, the method adopted in calculation of depreciation underwent a change from the straight line to the sum of years digits method (Berk and DeMarzo, 2012). This decision was taken considering the fact that this change would be more beneficial to the company for that financial year. The expectations of those involved in the management of the company following the profit enhancement in the previous year. In the opinion of great economic analyzers and strategists like the economist, inventive steps such as the change of depreciation method would sufficiently boost the profits in the years to come. According to the standard accounting principles, the constituents of the financial statement of Sunshine Ltd are the equity, profits, reliabilities of assets and the available capital. The board of directors and the management together has the responsibility to take over the leadership and supervision of the growth in marketing opportunities for the company. Most importantly they are responsible for presentation of the financial report (Bhimani and Dai, 2008). The governing body or the administrative body is concerned with the company's efficient operation and protection of shareholder rights as well as their value enhancement. The change of the method practiced for calculating depreciation gave rise to an imbalance in the model for cost and that for revolution included in AASB16. Also, the stockholders are disillusioned and unsatisfied with this change and may possibly resort to legal proceedings against the company too. Present financial condition of the company Statements dealing with compliance on financial matters that are in accordance with the financial statements of Sunshine Ltd have been designed by the Australian secretarial standards. The report published by the Queensland Treasury depicted minimum supplies of financial systems and a few other pronouncements that are reliable. With respect to the non-profitable statutory bodies applicable for non-profitable entities, the standard methods and the definitions compete with Australian accounting methods (Bodnar and Hopwood, 2013). The new rules or amendments made in the monetary matters have not yet been adopted explicitly. The equal opportunities and liabilities in the Coast Hospital of Sunshine Ltd include in some cases all expenses, values of property and revenues. An accounting that can be adjusted is required at the end of a financial year. The particular department offered financial support within a fortnight after being requested. Some transactions, as well as balances, have not been included in the documents containing the financial statements. It is a criterion for measuring the extent to which the operations are trustable with respect to accounts. Some of the other liabilities such as property and others are included in statements relating to accounting positions and notes on them. Others fall within the confidential status in the form of non-current data. Property falls under investments and that for cultural practices are evaluated with respect to present values after reports with expected provisions (Bragg, 2013). The assets kept for fulfilling cultural objectives, preserving the valuable heritage and those used as equipment in manufacturing plants are evaluated in terms of fair values. A few of the recorded liabilities and also some proceeds at a standard value given for acquiring material goods are accepted as satisfactory debt in the usual business proceedings. Ethics and governance of the company Having some authorization of punishment law is the inner power of a self-governing Governance company. Officially authorized processor servants observing by the private-public are done by the Governance. The wealthy life is against any action of any state. That system is acceptable as fair and right to help or maintain the countrys legal system, which leads people intelligent participatory. The behavior of ethical is a responsible of each in the society that they are supported well-organized better social host (Holton, 2012). Forcing into some situation provides an inducement that was considered as necessary to some immunity who might be the giver backhander. Executing in his task and action will mainly leading to the improved system of governance, but in order of behavior, such official will go faster with some better management. Legal communities arise to make an arrangement or some contract that must have to create legal obligations or some intentions that will be developed by som e social contract which is the vast enforcement which culminates into some contract (Horngren, 2011). Multiparty Agreements are intended to some faceplate to some trade agreements of aim into some reducing level that is liberalized or a phased manner. Some benefits of the increasing value of commerce are to regulate and provides with all parties. By technology or some computer information expansion of software, communication has changed the lifestyle almost so the gear of business processing that are under processing with some of the lots of rate advantages to the severe parties. Role that Accountants Play in Changing the Depreciation Method The concerned authority dealing in revenue services in the country sets guidelines which determine the depreciable lifetime of the fixed assets. The different methods adopted for reduction affect the balance sheet and assets in a variety of ways. The reduction can be described in simple terms as the expense that is required for businesses having fixed amount of assets. The depreciation method that is chosen by any company affects the statement of income as well as the value of the property as given on the balance sheet (Horngren, 2013). The assets here are considered as excluding land. In this case, the company Sunshine Ltd had decided to change the depreciation method from the straight line to sum-of-digits' years. As to as direct those profits in the year 2018 and 2019, the company's objective was to reduce the benefits during the next biennium, when there is a chance of an economic slowdown. For this purpose, the company had approached the accountant Maria Mars. In other words, Ma ria changed the pace of accumulation of the depreciation, which in turn affected the assets carrying value. Applying an accelerated methods of reduction would be suitable in this case, and Maria did exactly so. The method of depreciation called straight line method is characterized by the same expense in depreciation throughout the period when the asset is useful. The result is the reduction percentage of the property during each year. For instance, if the fixed asset were supposed to last for five years, the depreciation value would be calculated by adding the digits 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and then diving each number by the sum i.e. 15 (Kew and Watson, 2012). This is a signal for some changes in the principle of accounting followed by the company. As a result of the change from straight line to accelerated method, there was a shift in accounting estimate of the depreciation of all assets. Significant Aspects of the Financial Statements For the incensement of the business confident in the year of 2015, the company wanted to go through the reversal process in the condition of the infrastructure. These issues had an impact on the annual financial presentation of the company Sunshine Ltd (Mott, 2008). For the opportunities of business, and employability, the growth of the companys financial condition was contributed by the regional project of the company. The company was interested in investing in several sectors like universities, entertainment, hospitals, and in the airports also. In the year of 2014, there were identified many funding resources, and many highly valued employees are found who had a great contribution to making a milestone of the company (Libby, Libby and Short, 2014). Many projects are found to be completed in the next years like power generation, water treatment, and storage, infrastructure related projects, water well, plants for oil and so on. At the end of the year of 2016, the company Sunshine Ltd had to face a huge decrease in economy. The different organization had been done many agreements for investing their shares. A group named Bright Hope had already contributed their shares which were bought by the company Sunshine Ltd. At the beginning of the year 2017, the company had done many agreements in return for payment (Rosen, 2005). Through the various agreements, the company tried to enhance and revalued their capital assets. During March 2017 they have introduced the assessment of the funds and the income. Sometimes they revised their funds for the incensement of some particular product like Bitumen. Effects on stockholders and AASB16 of the changing of depreciation method For the sustainability of the performance of the company the stakeholders always try to contribute a significant part of their investments. The stakeholders and the employees always should have a payment as a part of the success of the company. The valuable advice for the improvements of the performances of the company is always offered by their stakeholders and their employees. The company always tries to achieve their goal by the affecting stakeholder management, adopting few strategies and influencing their employees in different factors. The change of the depreciation method has a huge impact on their stakeholders (Schroeder, Clark and Cathey, 2011). The changing of depreciation method can be the reason of the change of the income and the balance record. So it affects the overall financial performance of the company. The shareholders become worried about the changing financial programs of the company, so they want to take some steps and advised the company for the better financia l result in future. The stakeholders of the company Sunshine Ltd become interested in the change from straight to the sum of years' depreciation method (Waterston, 2006). The stakeholders were assured that by the application of the sum of years' method can be profitable for the company in coming few years. AASB16 set the accounting standard of the country and helps in the implementation of the decision. Intention of the changing of the depreciation method The accounting process straight-line depreciation method was the first accounting process of the company which was profitable for them till 2015. It was known by the record of the financial report of 2015. The expectations of the managements become increased day by day from the company. As per the opinion of the economist, the report of 2018-2019 can show a great fall for the effect of the markets of the coming years. As per the request of the accountant the management takes the decision to change the straight line depreciation method to the sum-of-years digit method for at least one year for more profit (Wolf, 2010). For the profit of the company the Sunshine Ltd includes the changing of the straight line depreciation method to the sum-of-years digit method which can be profitable for the upcoming few years. As the result of adopting this strategy when the companies will have a loss running the business, then this company will achieve the first position in the market of Australia. T o gain more profit was the main target to changing the accounting process from straight line depreciation method to sum of years method. Recommendations The recommendations that can be provided in this case of the Sunshine ltd are provided in the following points:- The straight line depreciation method undertaken by the company must be used for the betterment of the structure. The sum-of-years digit method is being used for showing the appropriate calculation of the process for the purpose of showing the running loss of the company and also the recovery can be easily made by implementing this method. Conclusion The economic report of 2015-2016, it was noticed that the company Sunshine Ltd was the second highest performing company in the Queensland of Australia. In 2014 Sunshine Ltd gave the highest level of business to the west area of the Queensland with the profit of 56%. In 2015 the profit increased 15.6% by the income of the last years. Many key issues like alternative funding sources, proper investment plan, making good marketing strategies are significantly prioritized by the company's progress report. For getting more profit, the company should adopt a policy by changing the straight line depreciation method to the sum of years digit method. This strategy was completely agreed by the accountant and the economist of the company Sunshine Ltd (Schroeder, Clark and Cathey, 2011). Through this process, the company can achieve the top position in the market. To achieve the long-term goal for 2033, the company should prioritize their partners and their stakeholders and adopt more strategies which can be profitable for the company. References Berk, J. and DeMarzo, P. (2012).Corporate finance. Harlow: Prentice Hall/Financial Times. Bhimani, A. and Dai, T. (2008).Management and cost accounting. Harlow: Prentice Hall/Financial Times. Bodnar, G. and Hopwood, W. (2013).Accounting information systems. Boston: Prentice Hall. Bragg, S. (2013).Accounting best practices, seventh edition. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley Sons. Holton, R. (2012).Global finance. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Horngren, C. (2011).Cost accounting. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Australia. Horngren, C. (2013).Accounting. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Australia. Horngren, C. (2013).Financial accounting. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Australia Group. Kew, J. and Watson, A. (2012).Financial accounting. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. Libby, R., Libby, P. and Short, D. (2014).Financial accounting. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education. Mott, G. (2008).Accounting fro Non-Accountants (7th Edition). London, GBR: Kogan Page, Limited. Rosen, H. (2005).Public finance. Boston, Mass. [u.a.]: McGraw-Hill. Schroeder, R., Clark, M. and Cathey, J. (2011).Financial accounting theory and analysis. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Waterston, C. (2006).Financial Accounting. Pearson Education UK. Wolf, M. (2010).Fixing global finance. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Monday, March 23, 2020

Human Diversity an Example of the Topic Psychology Essays by

Human Diversity by Expert Dr. Mart (Ph.D.) | 20 Dec 2016 Human persity is often associated with differences between people, and is oftentimes accounted for the oppression and injustice that is happening in our society today. This becomes a basis of judging persons character, depending on the group of people that they belong. The different characters include a persons race, nationality, culture or ethnicity, gender, social class, sexual preference, religion and more. But these traits are just superficial, and are not very significant regarding the topic of human persity. There are a lot of other differences that can be considered and these traits are far more important in gaining knowledge regarding the concept of human persity. Need essay sample on "Human Diversity" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed The matter that we should consider important regarding this topic should be related to a persons growth and character development. This includes his personality, preference, interests, needs, abilities, skills and capabilities, ideas and more. The persons differences should not lead to disparity between other groups of people, thus it should be seen or be recognized as a unique character, a source of inpiduality and not of indifference. People should be able to live with these differences rather than fighting each other asserting that one is superior or inferior to the other. Coping with the presence of other different culture is an important matter that people should consider. Although there are really unique qualities or differences between other people, it should be respected, as well as expecting others to respect ones differences also ("Race - the Power of an Illusion"). Instead of finding faults from others difference, people should consider how they will be able to make use of these differences. They should learn from each others different characteristics rather than asserting what you believed is ultimately what others should believe also, and that differences of people would surely lead to hostility and misunderstandings. This is the full realization of these differences: being to live with other person who possesses different characteristics. The human race The human race is a term that is used to describe various populations or groups of people which are distinguished by various sets of characteristics and beliefs, and comes from the same ancestors. Usually, the human race is based on what seem to be are visible characteristics or traits of people like their skin color, hair color, or facial structure and features. According to Barbujani, in classical human genetic or physical anthropology textbooks, races are envisaged as large populations of inpiduals who evolved together, share a significant fraction of their genes, hence can be distinguished from other races by their gene pool or by different alleles fixed in each (Barbujani). These races are clearly separated or delineated by various borders related to variations which are biological. There are various ways that leads to the occurrence of these races. One of these ways is when reproductive barriers form because of isolation; genetic drift and internal variations when alleles which are lost are havent been able to be introduced by the gene flow. This leads to the pergence of the different groups, wherein different alleles becomes lost inside each groups, which results to mutations occurring in the groups. Because of pergence, groups will soon develop and be able to generate several genetic discontinuities, thus creating boundaries between the various groups of people. Another way to create variations is when different groups on the other hand converge with each other, thus recombining various genes. These results to exchanging important or substantial amount of difference in the gene flow of these groups (Barbujani). Classifying people There are various types and characteristics if human beings. They have no definite size or shape, and that when you classify them into groups; it is inevitable to consider their social status, their cultural ideas, and political priorities. According to Bulbeck, et al, from early historical times, people of widely perse origins were brought together through trade and conquest (Bulbeck, Raghavan and Rayner). There were various schemes that have been used to characterize human beings before, and it was more on the physical basis. The most common way was to classify skin color of people, but eventually, early European scholars devised a way on how to formalize the taxonomies of the human races. Later in the twentieth century, people have recognized a way in order to determine ones race, and it was more on the physical anthropology concept. Because of this, several themes have emerged, thus leading to variations on making certain classifications of the human race. These themes are summarized as follows: the integration of a broad array of biological indicators, approaches on the clinical patterns which concerns human variation, the packaging of various indigenous human variations on continuous blocs concerning geography, and the search for the fossil records of the ancestors of these races (Yotova). In the late 20th century, researchers were able to devise a more refined knowledge of human variation, genes and studies about genetics, and the fossil records. This had led to pisions in the different perceptions of humanity in these various races (Bulbeck, Raghavan and Rayner). In order to categorize the different types of human beings, there are various concerns that need to be considered. Different people fall in different groups as one change the criteria of the classification, thats why we should stick in one criteria rather than changing it constantly (Mamiya). When it comes to biology, people doesnt necessarily inherit a trait, instead he gets it independently. A specific trait of a person doesnt tell what kind of person he is as a whole. When putting this in the context of race characteristics, a trait shown by a single entity doesnt generally mean that all the members of the population should follow. Another is to point that classification of a person is more in a cultural sense than scientific. He is classified not because of his genes, his gene pool, or any other biological concern. It is more of a culture-based classifier, wherein it includes his social status, character, and more ("Race - the Power of an Illusion"). Also, there are a lot of loopholes or gaps between various groups of people. There is no single, unifying gene that would signify that persons race from another. This is accounted for by the nature of classification of people as more of the cultural alignment than biological or scientific. Categories are more socially constructed, thus there are a lot of inconsistencies in these various groups defined. Summary In todays society, there are a lot of different groups of people living together. Cultural disparities between these groups cannot be avoided, but still they are regarded as an important aspect of the society. There are various factors that led to the occurrence of these groups. The persity in human beings proves to be of great importance in todays world since it is a means of sharing of knowledge from one culture to another. Interactions between these cultures mean enriching the minds of the people, and adding more persity on our already-perse society. References: Barbujani, Guido. "Human Races: Classifying People Vs. Understanding persity." Current Genomics Vol. 6.Issue 4 (2005): p215-26, 12p. Bulbeck, David, Pathmanathan Raghavan, and Daniel Rayner. "Races of Homo Sapiens: If Not in the Southwest Pacific, Then Nowhere." World Archaeology Vol. 38. Issue 1 (2006): p109-32, 24p. "Race - the Power of an Illusion". 2006. California Newreel. April 24 2007.>. Mamiya, L. H. "Being Human: Race, Culture, and Religion." Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries Vol. 43.Issue 7 (2006): p1243-44, 2p. Yotova, Vania, et al. "Haplotypes in the Dystrophin DNA Segment Point to a Mosaic Origin of Modern Human persity." American Journal of Human Genetics Vol. 73.Issue 5 (2003): p994-1015, 22p.

Friday, March 6, 2020

What You Need to Know About the Crusades

What You Need to Know About the Crusades The medieval Crusade was a holy war. For a conflict to be officially considered a Crusade, it had to be sanctioned by the pope and conducted against groups seen as enemies of Christendom. Initially, only those expeditions to the Holy Land (Jerusalem and associated territory) were considered Crusades. More recently, historians have also recognized campaigns against heretics, pagans, and Muslims in Europe as Crusades. How the Crusades Began For centuries, Jerusalem had been governed by Muslims, but they tolerated Christian pilgrims because they helped the economy. Then, in the 1070s, Turks (who were also Muslim) conquered these holy lands and mistreated Christians before realizing how useful their goodwill (and money) could be. The Turks also threatened the Byzantine Empire. Emperor Alexius asked the pope for assistance, and Urban II, seeing a way to harness the violent energy of Christian knights, made a speech calling for them to take back Jerusalem. Thousands responded, resulting in the First Crusade. When the Crusades Began and Ended Urban II made his speech calling for Crusade at the Council of Clermont in November, 1095. This is seen as the start of the Crusades. However, the reconquista of Spain, an important precursor to crusading activity, had been going on for centuries. Traditionally, the fall of Acre in 1291 marks the end of the Crusades, but some historians extend them to 1798, when Napoleon expelled the Knights Hospitaller from Malta. Crusader Motivations There were as many different reasons for crusading as there were crusaders, but the single most common reason was piety. To crusade was to go on pilgrimage, a holy journey of personal salvation. Whether that also meant giving up virtually everything and willingly facing death for God, bending to peer or family pressure, indulging bloodlust without guilt, or seeking adventure or gold or personal glory depended entirely on who was doing the crusading. Who Went on Crusade People from all walks of life, from peasants and laborers to kings and queens, answered the call. Women were encouraged to give money and stay out of the way, but some went on crusade anyway. When nobles crusaded, they often brought huge retinues, whose members may not necessarily have wanted to go along. At one time, scholars theorized that younger sons more frequently went crusading in search of estates of their own; however, crusading was an expensive business, and recent research indicates it was lords and elder sons who were more likely to crusade. The Number of Crusades Historians have numbered eight expeditions to the Holy Land, though some lump the 7th and 8th together for a total of seven crusades. However, there was a steady stream of armies from Europe to the Holy Land, so it is nearly impossible to distinguish separate campaigns. In addition, some crusades have been named, including the Albigensian Crusade, the Baltic (or Northern) Crusades, the Peoples Crusade, and the Reconquista. Crusader Territory Upon the success of the First Crusade, the Europeans set up a king of Jerusalem and established what is known as the Crusader States. Also called outremer (French for across the sea), the Kingdom of Jerusalem controlled Antioch and Edessa, and it was divided into two territories since these places were so far-flung. When ambitious Venetian merchants convinced warriors of the Fourth Crusade to capture Constantinople in 1204, the resulting government was referred to as the Latin Empire, to distinguish it from the Greek, or Byzantine, empire they had claimed. Crusading Orders Two important military orders were established in the early 12th century: the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights Templar. Both were monastic orders whose members took vows of chastity and poverty, yet they were also militarily trained. Their primary purpose was to protect and aid pilgrims to the Holy Land. Both orders did very well financially, particularly the Templars, who were notoriously arrested and disbanded by Philip IV of France in 1307. The Hospitallers outlasted the Crusades and continue, in a much-altered form, to this day. Other orders were established later, including the Teutonic Knights. Impact of the Crusades Some historians particularly Crusades scholars consider the Crusades the single most important series of events in the Middle Ages. The significant changes in the structure of European society that took place in the 12th and 13th centuries were long considered the direct result of Europes participation in the Crusades. This view no longer holds as strongly as it once did. Historians have recognized many other contributing factors in this complex time. Yet there is no doubt the Crusades contributed greatly to changes in Europe. The effort of raising armies and providing supplies for Crusaders stimulated the economy; trade benefited, as well, especially once the Crusader States were established. Interaction between the East and West affected European culture in areas of art and architecture, literature, mathematics, science and education. And Urbans vision of directing the energies of warring knights outward succeeded in reducing war within Europe. Having a common foe and common objective, even for those who didnt participate in the Crusade, fostered a view of Christendom as a united entity.   This has been a very basic introduction to the Crusades. For a better understanding of this extremely complex and greatly-misunderstood topic, please explore our Crusades Resources or read one of the Crusades Books recommended by your Guide.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 28

Economics - Essay Example An isocost line is a line showing combinations of inputs that would yield the same cost. Therefore, the word isocost implies that the cost of the given factors of production are constant along the certain activity level and thus can be used for the planning and decision making purposes. In the above figure, L denotes the amount of labor utilized by the producer and K denotes the amount of capital utilized by the producer. It is evident from the figure that along the line the cost of both of the factors of production is same and the total cost of production is also shown on the graph for different cost lines. With the help of isocost lines, most economic and cost beneficial decision can be made for getting the desired output. This graph also shows that isocost lines are the straight lines and the only different in them is that they shift up or down the graph showing the same pattern for different activity levels. These isocost lines are parallel because each reflects the same relative resource price. Given a  production function, an isoquant is "the locus of input combinations that yield the same output level." (Chiang, p. 360) There is an isoquant set for each possible output level. Mathematically the isoquant is a  level curve of the production function. Isoquants is a concept relating to the quantity of input required to produce a certain level of output. For a given level of output, there are certain levels of input of production factors that yield the same level of output. If the ratio of two or more of the factors of production is changed then the resulting yield of those input factors can be same for all of the combinations of factors. This implies that the concept of isoquant deals primarily with the cost minimization problems of producers. The above figure shows different levels of labor and capital required to produce a certain output of a particular product and the curve shows that different combinations of input resources can be made to